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پایان نامه رشته زبان انگلیسی:The Relationship among EFL Learners’ Use of Language Learning Strategies, Reading Strategies, and Reading Comprehension

متن کامل پایان نامه مقطع کارشناسی ارشد رشته :زبان انگلیسی

عنوان : The Relationship among EFL Learners’ Use of Language Learning Strategies, Reading Strategies, and Reading Comprehension


Islamic Azad University

At Central Tehran

Faculty of Foreign Languages

English Department


The Relationship among EFL Learners’ Use of Language Learning Strategies, Reading Strategies, and Reading Comprehension






November 2013

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The purpose of the present study was to explore the relationship among EFL learners’ use of learning strategies, reading strategies, and reading comprehension. To fulfill this objective, 150 female EFL learners, between 25 and 42 years old, who were selected randomly from amongst those who were attending in upper-intermediate level of Safir language school were asked to take part in a piloted PET reading comprehension test and two questionnaires on Strategy Inventory for Language Learning (SILL), and Survey of Reading Strategies (SORS). After discarding incomplete answer sheets, the acceptable cases were used in statistical analysis.

At first the PET was piloted and it was declared that it was reliable. Then the results from the main administration were analyzed to exclude the descriptive data; it showed that there was no skewness in the results. The next step was to test the hypotheses; in this regards, Pearson’s product moment correlation was applied and the outcome showed that the three hypotheses were rejected.

After analyzing the results it was concluded that the use of reading strategies has positive effect (r=0.93) on learners’ learning. Also it was shown that using learning strategies has a positive effect (r=0.61) on learners’ reading comprehension; construing that the reading strategies and language learning strategies have positive and high correlation with learners’ comprehension.



ACKNOWLEDGMENTS                                                                        ii

ABSTRACT                                                                                               iii

TABLE OF CONTENTS                                                                         iv

LIST OF TABLES                                                                                    vii

LIST OF FIGURES                                                                                  viii


CHAPTER I: BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE                                   1

1.1 Introduction                                                                                          2

1.2 Statement of the Problem                                                                     5

1.3 Statement of the Research Questions                                                   6

1.4 Statement of the Research Hypotheses                                                 7

1.5 Definition of Key Terms                                                                       7

1.5.1 Learning Strategies                                                                            7

1.5.2 Reading Comprehension                                                          8

1.5.3 Reading Strategies                                                                   8

1.6 Significance of the Study                                                                      9

1.7 Limitations and Delimitations                                                              11

1.7.1 Limitations                                                                               11

1.7.2 Delimitations                                                                                      12


2.1 Introduction                                                                                          14

2.2 Language Learning Strategies                                                               14

2.2.1 Categories of Language Learning Strategies                                      15

2.2.2 Language Learning and Strategy use                                        17

2.3 Reading                                                                                                21

2.3.1 Types of Reading                                                                     22

2.3.2 Components of Reading                                                          23

2.4 Reading Comprehension                                                                      25

2.4.1 Theories of Reading Comprehension                                       26

2.4.2 Definitions of Reading Comprehension                                             27

2.4.3 Categories of Reading Comprehension                                              28

2.5 Reading Strategies                                                                                29

2.5.1 Definitions of Reading Strategies                                             31

2.5.2 Categories of Reading Strategies                                                        32

2.5.3 Reading Strategies and Reading Comprehension                     33

CHAPTER III: METHOD                                                                       36

3.1 Introduction                                                                                          37

3.2 Participants                                                                                          37

3.3 Instrumentations                                                                                  37

3.3.1 The Language Learning Questionnaire                                              38

3.3.2 The Reading Strategies Questionnaire                                               40

3.3.3 Reading Comprehension Test                                                  41

3.4 Procedure                                                                                             41

3.5 Design                                                                                                  42

3.6 Statistical Analysis                                                                               42

CHAPTER IV: ANALYSIS OF DATA                                                   43

4.1 Introduction                                                                                          44

4.2 Descriptive Statistics of the Pilot Study                                                         44

4.3 Descriptive Statistics of the Main Administration                                46

4.3.1 Descriptive Statistics of the Language Learning Questionnaire         46 Memory Strategies                                                      48 Cognitive Strategies                                                    50 Compensation Strategies                                             51 Meta-cognitive Strategies                                            53 Affective Strategies                                                     54 Social Strategies                                                          56 Comparing the SILL’s Categories                                57

4.3.2 Descriptive Statistics of the Reading Strategies Questionnaire          59

4.3.3 Descriptive Statistics of the Reading Comprehension Test               60

4.4 Testing the Hypotheses                                                                        61

4.4.1 Testing the First Hypothesis                                                    62

4.4.2 Testing the Second Hypothesis                                                         62

4.4.3 Testing the Third Hypothesis                                                  63

CHAPTER V: CONCLUSION AND IMPLICATIONS                         65     

5.1 Introduction                                                                                          66

5.2 Procedure and Summary of the Findings                                                       66

5.3 Discussion                                                                                            67

5.4 Pedagogical Implications                                                                      69

5.4.1 Implications for EFL Teachers                                                 70

5.4.2 Implications for EFL Learners                                                 71

5.4.3 Implications for Syllabus designers                                         72

5.5 Suggestions for Further Research                                                                  72

REFERENCES                                                                                         73

APPANICES                                                                                             81

Appendix A: Learning Strategies Questionnaire                                        82

Appendix B: Reading Strategies Questionnaire                                          84

Appendix C: Reading Comprehension Test                                                     86


List of Tables

Table 4.1: Descriptive Statistics of the PET Reading Comprehension Test Piloting               45

Table 4.2: Reliability of the PET Reading Comprehension Test Piloting                       45

Table 4.3: Descriptive Statistics of the SILL Questionnaire Administration                           47

Table 4.4: Descriptive Statistics of the Memory Strategies                                           49

Table 4.5: Descriptive Statistics of the Cognitive Strategies                                          50

Table 4.6: Descriptive Statistics of the Compensation Strategies                                            52

Table 4.7: Descriptive Statistics of the Meta-cognitive Strategies                                 53

Table 4.8: Descriptive Statistics of the Affective Strategies                                           55

Table 4.9: Descriptive Statistics of the Social Strategies                                                         56

Table 4.10: Descriptive Statistics of the SILL Categories Means                                            58

Table 4.11: Descriptive Statistics of the SORS Questionnaire Administration                       59

Table 4.12: Descriptive Statistics of the PET Reading Comprehension

Test Administration                                                                                              60

Table 4.13: Correlation between Reading Strategies and Reading

Comprehension                                                                                           62

Table 4.14: Correlation between Language Learning Strategies and

Reading Comprehension                                                                              63

Table 4.15: Correlation between Language Learning Strategies and

Reading Strategies                                                                                        64


Figure 4.1: Score Distribution of the SILL Questionnaire                                                         48

Figure 4.2: Score Distribution of Memory Strategies                                                    50

Figure 4.3: Score Distribution of Cognitive Strategies                                                   51

Figure 4.4: Score Distribution of Compensation Strategies                                           53

Figure 4.5: Score Distribution of Meta-cognitive Strategies                                          54

Figure 4.6: Score Distribution of Affective Strategies                                                    56

Figure 4.7: Score Distribution of Social Strategies                                                                       57

Figure 4.8: Score Distribution of Compensation Strategies                                           58

Figure 4.9: Score Distribution of the SORS Questionnaire                                            60

Figure 4.10: Score Distribution of the PET Questionnaire                                                                61



1.1 Introduction

Reading is one of the most essential skills for every day interactions; practically, every portion of life comprises reading. Reading includes the activation of relevant knowledge and related language skills to exchange the information from one person to another. In this regard, one has to focus one’s attention on the reading materials and integrate previously obtained knowledge and skills to grasp the things someone else has written (Chastain, 1988).

Reading is similar to listening in that they are both receptive skills, during which readers decode the message of the writer and try to rebuild it (Rashtchi & Keyvanfar, 2010). Indeed, reading can be identified as a negotiation between the reader and the text or between the reader and the author. Throughout such an active participation, the reader tries to either personally decipher the text or recognize the author’s original intention.

It is worth mentioning that in fact, reading does not occur unaccompanied; rather, it always occurs within a social context for a particular motive. People might read a text, such as a manual, to get information on how to do something or how to use something. Besides, they might study textbooks and course books to learn something; Furthermore, they sometimes read the texts such as emails or messages in order to socialize with their friends. People also read the texts related to their daily life, such as reading a map to find the shortest itinerary to a particular destination. Constantly one reads for pleasure; some examples of reading for pleasure include reading a novel or browsing the internet. Finally, under some circumstances, reading might happen for a blend of intentions.

It is always recommended that the readers use reading to increase their general awareness of language as well as their world knowledge; for, reading is a skill that can be accomplished privately on one’s own velocity. Reading skill is far more momentous for EFL learners. It is crucial to a student’s success in school, and further, to becoming a lifelong learner.

Reading is also a complex cognitive process of decoding symbols in order to construct or derive meaning (reading comprehension). Reading is a necessary tool for language acquisition, communication, and sharing information and ideas. It includes a complex interaction between the text and the reader which is affected by the reader’s prior knowledge, experiences, attitudes, and language community in cultural and social situations.

Effective reading is not a process that every individual can achieve (Nunan, 1999). Rather, it is difficult to learn, especially for those who want to read texts in a second or foreign language. When learning a foreign language, reading is an essential skill to acquire in order to increase knowledge and exchange information (Chien, 2000; Dlugosz, 2000; Salinger, 2003; Huang, 2005). However, most English instructors still concentrate on correcting the learners’ grammatical mistakes or increasing their vocabulary. To improve learners’ reading abilities, the instructors must wisely consider effective strategies and supportive tools. In contrary, the instructors seldom teach learners how to effectively use learning strategies to improve their reading comprehension; consequently, learners cannot master the language skills effectively (Berkowitz 1986; Carnine and Carnine 2004; Chi, 1997; Griffiths, 2008; Rivard and Yore 1992; Tsao, 2004).

Strategies are defined as specific actions, behaviors, steps, or techniques that students (often deliberately) use to improve their progress in developing L2 skills. These strategies can facilitate the internalization, storage, retrieval, or use of the new language. They are also tools for the self-directed involvement, which is necessary to develop language skills (Oxford, 1990).

Learner strategies, as one of the most important categories of strategies, are specific attacks that learners make on different problems when receiving input or producing output. One type of strategies used by language learners is learning strategies.

Park (1995) defines learning strategies as “the mental activities that people use when they study to help themselves acquire, organize, or remember incoming knowledge more efficiently” (p. 35).

Also, it is generally accepted that among the strategies, reading strategies are one of the most beneficial ones that any reader can use for ensuring success in reading (Afflerbach, Pearson, and Paris, 2008). They are of interest for what they reveal about the way readers manage their interactions with written text, and how these strategies are related to reading comprehension (Carrell, Pharis, &Liberto, 1989).  Emphasizing on the key role of reading strategies, Afflerbach, Pearson, and Paris (2008) characterize them as “deliberate, goal directed attempts to control and modify the reader’s efforts to decode text, understand word, and construct meanings out of text” (p. 15). These strategies range from simple fix-up strategies such as simply rereading difficult segments and guessing the meaning of an unknown word from context, to more comprehensive strategies such as summarizing and relating what is being read to the reader’s background knowledge (Janzen, 1996).

Taking the role of all mentioned strategies into consideration, each of these could be just as a piece of the puzzle. The correlation between reading comprehension as a target and any of these strategies on the one hand and the relationships between each pair of them on the other hand can provide us a more holistic yet precise approach toward reading.

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